In-Text No Identified Author [6.15]
Example of no identified author in narrative and paraphrase:
The book Social Work in America (1934)…
Example of no identified author in paraphrase:
The field of social work covers many areas (Program Overview, 1987).
In-Text Group or Organization as Author [6.13]
Examples of group or organization in narrative and paraphrase:
The American Psychological Association (APA, 2010) noted…
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2009) reported…
In 2009, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) found…
Example of group or organization paraphrase:
The field of social work covers many areas (National Association of Social Workers [NASW], 2008).
Example of group or organization in narrative and quote:
The American Psychological Association (APA, 2010) reported, “The mission of the APA is to advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people’s lives” (para. 1).
Example of group or organization quote:
“The mission of the APA is to advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people’s lives” (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010, para. 1).
In-Text Authors with the Same Surname [6.14]
Example of same author surnames narrative and paraphrase:
J. Diaz and Martin (1997) and A. Diaz (2010) noted…
D. Emerson (2009) and K. Emerson (1987) reported…
Example of same author surnames in paraphrase:
The field of social work covers many areas (D. Emerson, 2009; K. Emerson, 1987).
In-Text Two or More Works [6.13]
Examples of two or more works in narrative and paraphrase:
Heath (1997) and Wallace (2010) noted…
Emerson (2009) and Oliver (1987) reported…
Example of two or more works in paraphrase:
The field of social work covers many areas (Heath, 1997; Wallace, 2010).
Not all of your sources will come from books, journals, newspapers, etc. Some of them will consist of personal communications, or personal conversations, emails, class lectures, performance art, or research interviews. Cite personal communications only in the text, give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide the exact date if possible (see APA, section 6.20, p. 179; APA Style Blog, "What Belongs in the Reference List?").
In text format:
According to S. Brown (personal communication, July 22, 2012), the statistics class is full.
The statistics class is full (S. Brown, personal communication, July 22, 2012).
If the personal communication is recoverable, then the source should be cited as an archived material.
Since emails are not recoverable, APA treats them like personal communications (see APA Style FAQ, "How Do You Cite E-Mail Communications from Individuals?"). These are not included in the reference list.
In text format:
An example given by M. Lankershim (personal communication, May 11, 2008)
There were 100 participants in the study (M. Lankershim, personal communication, May 11, 2008)
Facebook Page (private, friends-only) (see APA, section 6.10, p. 173)
If a Facebook page privacy settings have been set to "friends only" or "private," then communications can only be referenced in text as personal communications. However, if the content is visible to everyone, then communications can be posted to the reference page.
Irretrievable Class Lecture
If a class lecture is irretrievable, it is considered unrecoverable data. Only reference the source within the text, and not on the reference list.
In text format:
According to Professor L. Tucker (personal communication, May 17, 2009)
The post-war depression of the early 1900s was a hardship for all citizens, rich and poor (Professor L. Tucker, personal communication, May 17, 2009)
Because personal interviews are not considered recoverable data, these references should not be posted in the reference list.
In text format:
M. Hughes (personal communication, February 10, 2005) suggests that
Too many hot dogs are not good for your gut (M. Hughes, personal communication, Febrauary 10, 2005)
Performance Art (see APA Style Blog, "There's an Art to It")
Because people cannot go back to the actual performance unless it has been recorded, performance art should be formatted like a personal communication by giving the artist(s) and date of performance. This source is not included in the reference list unless the performance has been recorded.
In text format
A. Adler's (personal communication, March 06, 2005) rendition of The Nutcracker is a postmodern attempt at a classical piece of ballet
The postmodern rendition of The Nutcracker (A.Adler, personal communication, March 06, 2005) was a success amongst the critics.
Research Interviews (see APA Blog Post, "What Belongs in the Reference List?")
Though most personal communications include the communicators first initial and surname, in the case of research interviewees, the participant's identity must remain anonymous for ethical reasons. As a result, you should not include any identifying information. Here are some ways to keep your participants anonymous:
Observations by one of the students interviews draws more attention to the inital problem: [Insert quote without other attributions]
"The experience was different and exhausting (male participant, 43 years of age)."
"In retrospect, I would have spent more time with the research librarian (female psychology student)."
Use letters, nicknames, or roles to identify participants
APA (see APA, section 6.17, p. 178; APA Style FAQ) suggests that secondary sources should be used sparingly, especially when the full-text of the original source is available. However, there are instances in which the original source is:
In these cases, you would list the secondary source in the reference list, name the original work and use an in-text citation for the secondary source.
Citing an original work from a secondary source:
a. Secondary citation within the text:
According to Freud (as cited in Skinner, 1923), the characteristics ….
b. The document used is cited in the reference list:
Skinner, B. F. (1974). About behavioralism. New York, NY: Knopf.
Notice that Freud is mentioned in the body of the paper so the reader would understand that any ideas being cited even though the actual book that discussed Freud's ideas was actual written by Skinner.
Citing an unpublished manuscript from an archival collection
Original documents for unpublished and archived sources are difficult to retrieve so secondary sources may be used. An example includes a diary entry like the example in APA (6th ed.), p. 178, section 6.17.
a. Secondary citation ithin the text (direct APA example, p. 178)
Allport's diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003).
b. The actual document used is cited in the reference list
Nicholson, I. (2003). Inventing personality: Gordon Allport and the science of selfhood. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological
Association. doi: 10.1037/10514-000