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AMA (10/e) Style Guide

Use AMA Style (American Medical Association Style) to format papers.

General Book Format

  • Complete information on what to include in a book citation can be found in section 3.12.1 of the AMA Manual of Style
  • For further information on abbreviations for place of publication, see section 14.5. 
  • For further information on abbreviations for publishers, see section 14.7.
  • Below is the general format of a reference citation for a chapter in a book:

1. Yashiro M, Yanagawa H. Database construction for information on patients with Kawasaki disease. In: Yanagawa H, Nakamura Y, Yashiro M, Kawasaki T, eds. Epidemiology of Kawasaki Disease: A 30-Year Achievement. Tokyo, Japan: Shindan-to-Chiryosha; 2004:57-77.

  • Below is the general format for a reference citation for an entire book:

2. Modlin J, Jenkins P. Decision Analysis in Planning for a Polio Outbreak in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Pediatric Academic Societies; 2004.

More Specific Book Examples

EXAMPLES: 

  1. Cooper IS. The Vital Probe: My Life as an Experimental Brain Surgeon. New York: Norton; 1981.
  2. Quinn S. Marie Curie: A Life. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1995.
  3. Epstein R. Attending: Medicine, Mindfulness, and Humanity. New York: Scribner; 2017.

Note: If you have six or less authors, you must list all of the authors in the reference.  

EXAMPLES for six authors or less:

  1. Tobias JS, Williams CJ. Cancer: A Colour Atlas. New York, NY: Gower Medical Publishing; 1991.
  2. Logan BM, Reynolds PA, Hutchings RT. McMinn's Color Atlas of Head and Neck Anatomy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Mosby; 2004.
  3. Wolff K, Johnson RA, Fitzpatrick TB. Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Medical; 2009.

If you have more than six authors, list the first three followed by ', et al.'

EXAMPLES for more than six authors:

  1. Doe JF, Roe JP III, Coe RT Jr, et al.

EXAMPLES: 

  1. DeVita, Jr. VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott; 1993.
  2. Armitage JO, Antman KH, eds. High-dose Cancer Therapy: Pharmacology, Hematopoietins, Stem Cells. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1995.
  3. Nasca PC, Pastides H, eds. Fundamentals of Cancer Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2008.

When citing a chapter of a book, capitalize as you would for a journal article title (capitalize only the first word of the title, see 3.9, Titles). Do not use quotation marks. Inclusive page numbers of the chapter should be given (see also 3.12.11, Page Numbers or Chapter Number).

EXAMPLES: 

  1. Kaplein MJ. History and physical examination. In: McMahon MC, Stryjewski GR, eds. Pediatrics A Competency-Based Companion. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier; 2011:46-51.
  2. Nagappan S, Roberts KB. Decision making: use of evidence-based medicine. In: Rudolph CD, Rudolph AM, Lister G, First LR, Gershom AA, eds. Rudolph's Pediatrics. 22nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2011:3-4.
  3. Stettler N, Bhatia J, Parish A, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme III JW, Schor NF, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders; 2011:160-169.

References to monographs should be styled the same as references to books.

EXAMPLES:

  1. Klute DS, Ayers LW, Green MT, Howe WH, Jones SL, Shafer JA, et al. Status Assessment and Conservation Plan for the Western Burrowing Owl in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 2003. Biological Technical Publication BTP-R6001-2003.
  2. Beach MC, Cooper LA, Robinson KA, Price EG, Gary TL, Jenckes MW, et al. Strategies for Improving Minority Healthcare Quality: A Summary. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment 90.
  3. Engber E, Teraoka J, van Mantgem PJ. Forest Restoration at Redwood National Park: Exploring Prescribed Fire Alternatives to Second-Growth Management: A Case Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service; 2017. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-258.
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General Journal Format

  • Do not omit digits from inclusive page numbers. The year, followed by a semicolon; the volume number and the issue number (in parentheses), followed by a colon; the initial page number, a hyphen, and the final page number, followed by a period, are set without spaces. EXAMPLES:
    • 1. Rainier S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al. Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 gene mutations cause paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(7):1025-1029.

    • 2. Hyduk A, Croft JB, Ayala C, Zheng K, Zheng Z-J, Mensah GA. Pulmonary hypertension surveillance—United States, 1980–2002. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2005;54(5):1-28.

  • Complete information on what to include in a journal citation can be found in section 3.11.1 of the AMA Manual of Style. 
  • Use PubMed abbreviations for journal titles. See Journals referenced in the NCBI Databases.
  • If no PubMed journal abbreviation exists, use standard abbreviations in the AMA Manual of StyleFor further information on journal abbreviations, reference section 14.10.

More Specific Journal Examples

EXAMPLE:

  1. Weinzirl J. The cause of explosion in chocolate candies. J Bacteriol. 1922;7(6):599-604.
  2. Lippi D. Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons? Nutrition. 2009;25(11-12):1100-3.
  3. Verna R. The history and science of chocolate. Malays J Pathol. 2013;35(2):111-121.

If you have 6 or less authors, you must list all of the authors in the reference.  

EXAMPLE:

  1. McShea A, Ramiro-Puig E, Munro SB, Casadesus G, Castell M, Smith MA. Clinical benefit and preservation of flavanols in dark chocolate manufacturing. Nutr Rev. 2008;66(11):630-41.

If you have more than 6 authors, list the first three followed by ', et al.'

EXAMPLE:

  1. Pucciarelli DL, Grivetti LE. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(10):1215-27.
  2. Stahl L, Miller KB, Apgar J, et al. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder. J Food Sci. 2009;74(6):C456-61.

In references to journals that have no volume or issue numbers, use the issue date, as shown in example 1 below. If there is an issue number but no volume number, use the style shown in example 2 below.

  • 1. Flyvholm MA, Susitaival P, Meding B, et al. Nordic occupational skin questionnaire—NOSQ-2002: Nordic questionnaire for surveying work-related skin diseases on hands and forearms and relevant exposure. TemaNord. April 2002:518.

  • 2. Keppel K, Pamuk E, Lynch J, et al. Methodologic issues in measuring health disparities. Vital Health Stat 2. 2005;(141):1-16.

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