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AMA (10/e) Style Guide

Use AMA Style (American Medical Association Style) to format papers.

General Formatting for Electronic Resources

  • When the DOI is given for a journal article, AMA style prefers that the DOI is cited instead of the URL. If no DOI is given, include the URL. Do not cite both.
  • Complete information on how to cite electronic references can be found in section 3.15.3 of the AMA Manual of Style.

Electronic Resource Examples

Basic elements for formatting a citation for an e-Book can be found in the AMA Manual of Style, 3.15.2. It reads as follows:

Author(s). Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book Title. [Edition number, if it is the second edition or above; mention of first edition is not necessary] ed. City, State (or country) of publisher: Publisher’s name; copyright year:inclusive pages. URL: [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to the time of publication]. Accessed [date].

EXAMPLES with Author(s):

With six or less, list all authors. With six or less, cite the first three authors. Follow the same rules as in print. See guide.

  1. Gawkrodger DJ, Ardern-Jones MR. Dermatology: An Illustrated Colour Text. 6th ed. New York, NY: Elsevier: 2017.!/browse/book/3-s2.0-C20140040415. Accessed April 29, 2019.
  2. Wiles MR, Williams J, Ahmad KA. Essentials of Dermatology for Chiropractors. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2011. Accessed April 29, 2019.
  3. Marks JG, Miller JJ. Lookingbill and Marks' Principles of Dermatology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019.!/browse/book/3-s2.0-C20150008814. Accessed April 29, 2019.

EXAMPLES with Editor(s)

Follow the same rules for listing multiple authors.

  • 1. Lunney JR, Foley KM, Smith TJ, Gelband H, eds. Describing Death in America: What We Need to Know. Washington, DC: National Cancer Policy Board, Institute of Medicine; 2003. Accessed December 6, 2005.


  1. Bingham A, Laptook AR. Hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: different cooling regimens and infants not included in prior trials. In: Perlman JM, Cilio MR, Polin RA, eds. Neurology: neonatology questions and controversies. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019. Neonatology Questions and Controversies Series.!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9780323543927000042. Accessed April 29, 2019.
  2. Lakritz K. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. In: Jones, Jr. HR, Srinivasan J, Allam GJ, Baker RA, eds. Netter's Neurology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012.!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9781437702736000221. Accessed April 29, 2019.
  3. Vople JJ. Neurological examination: normal and abnormal features. In: Volpe JJ, ed. Volpe's Neurology of the Newborn. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018.!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9780323428767000090. Accessed April 29, 2019.

If no DOI is given, include the URL. Do not cite both.

Use the URL that will take the reader most directly to the article, not a long search string and not a short, more general URL such as one to the publisher’s home page. You may also use the location displayed in the Web browser as the URL. For a journal article, the accessed date will often be the only date available. This is especially important for journals that provide no  date posted, date updated or revised.


  1. Johnsson J. Video games introduce hospital services. Hospitals. 1991;65(7):70+. Accessed August 19, 2019.
  2. Graf WD, Chatrian G, Glass S, Knauss TA. Video game-related seizures: a report on 10 patients and a review of the literature. Pediatrics. 1994;93(4):551-556. Accessed on August 19, 2019.
  3. Wong FS, Campbell DR, Becker BE. Head injury and video games. West J Med. 1983;138(1):107. Accessed August 19, 2019.

A DOI (digital object identifier) provides persistent, unique identification. Because of this permanent quality, a DOI should be included in references if available. When the DOI is given for a journal article, AMA style prefers that the DOI is cited instead of the URL.


  1. Panagiotidi M. Problematic video game play and ADHD traits in an adult population. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2017;20(5):292-295. doi:10.1089/cyber.2016.0676
  2. Kietglaiwansiri T, Chonchaiya W. Pattern of video game use in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and typical development. Pediatr Int. 2018;60(6):523-528. doi:10.1111/ped.13564
  3. Hwang J, Lu AS. Narrative and active video game in separate additive effects of physical activity and cognitive function among young adults. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):11020. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-29274-0

In the example below, the article has no page numbers.

2. Gore D, Haji SA, Balashanmugam A, et al. Light and electron microscopy of macular corneal dystrophy: a case study. Digit J Ophthalmol. 2004;10. Accessed December 6, 2005.

If the online article does not provide page numbers, use other identifiers, eg, by e-page numbers if available (examples 3 and 4). 

3. Laupland KB, Davies HD, Low DE, Schwartz B, Green K; Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group. Invasive group A streptococcal disease in children and association with varicella-zoster virus infection. Pediatrics. 2000;105(5):e60. Accessed April 30, 2004.

4. e-Health Ethics Initiative. e-Health Code of Ethics. J Med Internet Res. 2000; 2(2):e9. Published May 24, 2000. Accessed April 29, 2004.

In citing data from a website, include the following elements, if available, in the order shown:

Author(s), if given (often, no authors are given). Title of the specific item cited (if none is given, use the name of the organization responsible for the site11). Name of the website. URL [provide URL and verify that the link still works as close as possible to publication]. Published [date]. Updated [date]. Accessed [date].


  • 1. International Society for Infectious Diseases. ProMED-mail website. Accessed April 29, 2004.

  • 2. Sullivan D. Major search engines and directories. SearchEngineWatch website. Updated April 28, 2004. Accessed December 6, 2005.

  • 3. Interim guidance about avian influenza A (H5N1) for US citizens living abroad. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Updated November 18, 2005. Accessed December 6, 2005.

  • 4. Sample size calculation. Grapentine Co Inc. Accessed December 6, 2005.

  • 5. Recommendations for the care and maintenance of high intensity metal halide and mercury vapor lighting in schools. National Electrical Manufacturers Association. Accessed December 6, 2005.

  • 6. Truth and reconciliation: examining human rights violations in South Africa’s health sector: submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission concerning the role of health professionals in gross violations of human rights. American Association for the Advancement of Science website. Published 1997. Accessed April 30, 2004.

Often only the accessed date will be available.


  • 1. Jacob Siegel; Administration on Aging. Aging into the 21st century. Published May 31, 1996. Accessed December 6, 2005.

  • 2. World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Updated June 10, 2002. Accessed February 26, 2004.

  • 3. US Department of Health and Human Services. Protection of human subjects. 45 CFR §46. Revised November 13, 2001. Effective December 13, 2001. Accessed February 27, 2004.

  • 4. World Health Organization. Equitable access to essential medicines: a framework for collective action. Published March 2004. Accessed December 6, 2005.