The GSBMS Thesis Style:
This is the style, which should be used in the literature review, master's thesis or dissertation.
Rules for References:
Use only initials of each author’s given names; no spaces between initials.
For a journal article, include full page numbers.
For more information, see Guidelines for Preparing the Master's Literature Review, the Master’s Thesis & the Doctoral Dissertation, the official text that provides information about the requirements of the Graduate School of Basic Medical Sciences, and the American Medical Association Manual of Style 10th edition (also available on Reserve in the Health Sciences Library, Call # WZ 345 A511 2007).
The work in the text should be cited by using the authors’ name(s) and publication year.
Example: One author:
Example: Two authors:
(Jones and March, 2005)
Example: Three or more authors:
(Crosby et al., 2008)
The “et al.” formula should be used when there are three or more authors. In the case of multiple entries, use suffixes appended to the year, as in Jones and March 2005a; Jones and March, 2005b
Some other investigators found conflicting results (Afonina et al., 1997; Zolotukhin et al., 2003). This situation caused confusion and frustration (Shav-Tal and Zipori, 2002). Finally, some graduate students with a fresh perspective nailed it down and now we think we know why up is down and left is right (Kuwahara et al., 2006).
In-Text Narrative Citations: (no need to italicize et al.)
According to Afonina et al. (1997) some other investigators found conflicting results.
American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (2019). 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Retrieved from http://www.onlinejacc.org/sites/default/files/additional_assets/guidelines/Prevention-Guidelines-Made-Simple.pdf (accessed 18 February 2022)
NOTE: Online sources should be kept to a minimum and used only if they are credible sources (to be discussed with your advisor). If online citations are used, include the web-address and the date accessed. Recognize that many online sources are not archivable, making it difficult for someone reading your review in years to come assess the validity of your comments. If used, monographs from online sources should be included as an appendix, which is placed prior to the reference list
Hsieh T-C and Wu JM (2018). Unraveling and Trailblazing Cardioprotection by Resveratrol. In JM Wu & T-C Hsieh (Eds), Resveratrol: State-of-th-Art Science and Health Applications (pp 1-28). Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Cuesta R, Gritsenko MA, Petyuk VA, Shukla AK, Tsai CF, Liu T, McDermott JE, Holz MK (2019). Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals Estrogen-ER Pathway as a Modulator of mTOR Activity Via DEPTOR. Mol Cell Proteomics. 18:1607-1618.
You should only cite literature/resources that you read. But there are times when you cannot find the original work or it may be in another language.
An indirect citation or secondary source is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work.
If you are referring to a study that is discussed within another published document (i.e., citing indirect sources/ secondary sources), you can cite in one of two ways: In this case Fried is the original author that you did not read and Etlinger is the secondary source that you read.
(Fried as cited in Etlinger, 2000)
(cited in Etlinger, 2000).
The use of secondary sources is useful if the original article is not available or is not written in English. In this case, only the secondary source (or what you read) is listed in the reference list. Please use secondary sources sparingly.
Morales M, Zhou X (2015). Health practices of immigrant women: indigenous knowledge in an urban environment. Paper presented at: 78th Association for Information Science and Technology Annual Meeting, November 6-10, 2015; St Louis, MO. Retrieved from https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.5555/2857070.2857108
For those of you who are using EndNote Desktop to manage your citations, the file for the proper GSBMS Thesis Style is found below along with these simple instructions to customize it to your Endnote library.