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GSBMS Thesis Prep

Guideline for students writing a Literature Review, M.S. Thesis or Dissertation PhD.

GSBMS Thesis Style Examples

Document Text:

  • Standard typeface (such as Calibri or Times New Roman), 12 point font.
  • Double space all straight text. Quotations, footnotes, titles, table headings, legends and references should be single spaced.
  • Document should be left-justified with an unjustified ("ragged") right margin.

The GSBMS Thesis Style:
This is the style, which should be used in the literature review, master's thesis or dissertation. 

Rules for References: 

Note: All authors' names should be cited in the reference list.

  • List works cited in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author under References/Bibliography
    • If two or more citations begin with the same last name, the order is then determined by the alphabetical order of the last name of the 2nd author, etc.
    • If all the names are the same, the citation is determined by the date; the earliest first.  If these citations were published in the same year, identify them as ‘a’ or ‘b’ [example, Smith AA. (2003a). How to cite articles. Chironian 15: 4-8.]
  • Article title is in regular font, not italicized.
  • Journal title is in italic font, abbreviated or as its full name. 
    • If you do abbreviate, use accepted Index Medicus abbreviations of journal names (search Journals in NCBI Databases from the PubMed home page).
  •  Use only initials of each author’s given names; no spaces between initials.

  • For a journal article, include full page numbers.

For more information, see Guidelines for Preparing the Master's Literature Review, the Master’s Thesis & the Doctoral Dissertation, the official text that provides information about the requirements of the Graduate School of Basic Medical Sciences, and the American Medical Association Manual of Style 10th edition (also available on Reserve in the Health Sciences Library, Call # WZ 345 A511 2007).


The work in the text should be cited by using the authors’ name(s) and publication year.  

Example: One author:

(Smith, 1995)

Example: Two authors:

(Jones and March, 2005)

Example: Three or more authors:

(Crosby et al., 2008) 

The “et al.” formula should be used when there are three or more authors. In the case of multiple entries, use suffixes appended to the year, as in Jones and March 2005a; Jones and March, 2005b

In-text Parenthetical Citations: 
Some other investigators found conflicting results (Afonina et al., 1997; Zolotukhin et al., 2003).  This situation caused confusion and frustration (Shav-Tal and Zipori, 2002).  Finally, some graduate students with a fresh perspective nailed it down and now we think we know why up is down and left is right (Kuwahara et al., 2006). 

In-Text Narrative Citations: (no need to italicize et al.)

According to Afonina et al. (1997) some other investigators found conflicting results.







American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (2019). 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Retrieved from (accessed 18 February 2022)


NOTE: Online sources should be kept to a minimum and used only if they are credible sources (to be discussed with your advisor).  If online citations are used, include the web-address and the date accessed. Recognize that many online sources are not archivable, making it difficult for someone reading your review in years to come assess the validity of your comments.  If used, monographs from online sources should be included as an appendix, which is placed prior to the reference list



Hsieh T-C and Wu JM (2018). Unraveling and Trailblazing Cardioprotection by Resveratrol. In JM Wu & T-C Hsieh (Eds), Resveratrol: State-of-th-Art Science and Health Applications (pp 1-28). Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.



Cuesta R, Gritsenko MA, Petyuk VA, Shukla AK, Tsai CF, Liu T, McDermott JE, Holz MK (2019). Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals Estrogen-ER Pathway as a Modulator of mTOR Activity Via DEPTOR.  Mol Cell Proteomics. 18:1607-1618.

Berman AY, Manna S, Schwartz NS, Katz YE, Sun Y, Behrmann CA, Yu JJ, Plas DR, Alayev A, Holz MK (2017). ERRα Regulates the Growth of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells via S6K1-Dependent Mechanism. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2, e17035. DOI: 10.1038/sigtrans.2017.35.

You should only cite literature/resources that you read. But there are times when you cannot find the original work or it may be in another language.

An indirect citation or secondary source is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work.

If you are referring to a study that is discussed within another published document (i.e., citing indirect sources/ secondary sources), you can cite in one of two ways: In this case Fried is the original author that you did not read and Etlinger is the secondary source that you read.

(Fried as cited in Etlinger, 2000)


(cited in Etlinger, 2000). 

The use of secondary sources is useful if the original article is not available or is not written in English.  In this case, only the secondary source (or what you read) is listed in the reference list.  Please use secondary sources sparingly. 



Morales M, Zhou X (2015). Health practices of immigrant women: indigenous knowledge in an urban environment. Paper presented at: 78th Association for Information Science and Technology Annual Meeting, November 6-10, 2015; St Louis, MO. Retrieved from


Customizing the GSBMS Thesis Style for EndNote


For those of you who are using EndNote Desktop to manage your citations, the file for the proper GSBMS Thesis Style is found below along with these simple instructions to customize it to your Endnote library.



For PC 


  1. Download the .ens file "GSBMS Thesis Style" (found below)
  2. Go to your downloads and double-click this style file. It should open in EndNote.
  3. In EndNote, click “File Menu” (top tab) and choose “Save as”. Remove the word “copy” and click “Save”.
  4. Click on “File Menu” and choose “Close Style”.
  5. You should now be able to find it in your list of available styles in your Style Manager.
    1. Under Tools > Output Styles > Open Style Manager


For Mac 

  1. Have your EndNote Desktop program open
  2. Download the .ens file for the GSBMS Thesis Style (found below)
  3. Double click on the file
  4. The style will open in an EndNote Window. Go to the top tab and under File in EndNote, click on Save As.
  5. Go to your EndNote library
  6. Under Tools > Output Styles > Open Style Manager
  7. You will then see the proper style that you customized for your EndNote Library