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GSBMS Thesis Prep

Guideline for students writing a Literature Review, M.S. Thesis or Dissertation PhD.

GSBMS Thesis Style Examples

Document Text:

  • Standard typeface (such as Calibri or Times New Roman), 12 point font.
  • Double space all straight text. Quotations, footnotes, titles, table headings, legends and references should be single spaced.
  • Document should be left-justified with an unjustified ("ragged") right margin.

The GSBMS Thesis Style:
This is the style, which should be used in the literature review, master's thesis or dissertation. 

Rules for References: 

Note: All authors' names should be cited in the reference list.

  • List works cited in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author under References/Bibliography
    • If two or more citations begin with the same last name, the order is then determined by the alphabetical order of the last name of the 2nd author, etc.
    • If all the names are the same, the citation is determined by the date; the earliest first.  If these citations were published in the same year, identify them as ‘a’ or ‘b’ [example, Smith AA. (2003a). How to cite articles. Chironian 15: 4-8.]
  • Article title is in regular font, not italicized.
  • Journal title is in italic font, abbreviated or as its full name. 
    • If you do abbreviate, use accepted Index Medicus abbreviations of journal names (search Journals in NCBI Databases from the PubMed home page).
  •  Use only initials of each author’s given names; no spaces between initials.

  • For a journal article, include full page numbers.

For more information, see Guidelines for Preparing the Master's Literature Review, the Master’s Thesis & the Doctoral Dissertation, the official text that provides information about the requirements of the Graduate School of Basic Medical Sciences, and the American Medical Association Manual of Style 10th edition (also available on Reserve in the Health Sciences Library, Call # WZ 345 A511 2007).


The work in the text should be cited by using the authors’ name(s) and publication year.  

Example: One author:

(Smith, 1995)

Example: Two authors:

(Jones and March, 2005)

Example: Three or more authors:

(Crosby et al., 2008) 

The “et al.” formula should be used when there are three or more authors. In the case of multiple entries, use suffixes appended to the year, as in Jones and March 2005a; Jones and March, 2005b

In-text citations: 
Some other investigators found conflicting results (Afonina et al., 1997; Zolotukhin et al., 2003).  This situation caused confusion and frustration (Shav-Tal and Zipori, 2002).  Finally, some graduate students with a fresh perspective nailed it down and now we think we know why up is down and left is right (Kuwahara et al., 2006). 



American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (2019). 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Retrieved from



Hsieh T-C and Wu JM (2018). Unraveling and Trailblazing Cardioprotection by Resveratrol. In JM Wu & T-C Hsieh (Eds), Resveratrol: State-of-th-Art Science and Health Applications (pp 1-28). Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co.



Cuesta R, Gritsenko MA, Petyuk VA, Shukla AK, Tsai CF, Liu T, McDermott JE, Holz MK (2019). Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals Estrogen-ER Pathway as a Modulator of mTOR Activity Via DEPTOR.  Mol Cell Proteomics. 18:1607-1618.

Berman AY, Manna S, Schwartz NS, Katz YE, Sun Y, Behrmann CA, Yu JJ, Plas DR, Alayev A, Holz MK (2017). ERRα regulates the growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells via S6K1-dependent mechanism. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy 2, e17035.


You should only cite literature/resources that you read. 

If you are referring to a study that is discussed within another published document (i.e., citing indirect sources/ secondary sources), you can cite in one of two ways:

(Fried as cited in Etlinger, 2000)

(or cited in Etlinger, 2000). 

The use of secondary sources is useful if the original article is not available or is not written in English.  In this case, only the secondary source is listed in the reference list.  Please use secondary sources sparingly.