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Nazi Medicine: Select Readings from the Collections of the Health Sciences Library: Nazi Medicine Bibliography


New York Medical College hosted the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum exhibit, "Deadly Medicine, Creating the Master Race" from July 15-September 3, 2014. The Health Sciences Library concurrently developed, "Nazi Medicine: Selected Readings form the Collections of the Health Sciences Library".

Nazi Medicine: Selected Readings from the Collections of the
Health Sciences Library, New York Medical College

This bibliography is a selected list of resources available through the Health Sciences Library of New York Medical College on the topic of Nazi medicine and eugenics. The purpose of the list is to encourage further understanding of the topic. It is not intended to be a comprehensive list.

We encourage your suggestions, donations, or short term loans.


1.      Aly, G, Chroust, P, Pross, C. Cleansing the fatherland: Nazi medicine and racial hygiene. Cooper B, translator; Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1994.

2.      Annas, GJ, Grodin, MA. The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code: human rights in human experimentation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1992. W20.5 N335 1992 

3.      Bashford, A, Levine, P. The Oxford handbook of the history of eugenics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2012. HQ751 O98 2010

4.      Baumslag, N. Murderous medicine: Nazi doctors, human experimentation, and typhus. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers; 2005.

5.      Feig, K. Hitler's death camps: the sanity of madness. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers; 1979. D810 J4 F323 1979

6.      Freyhofer, HH. The Nuremberg Medical Trial: the Holocaust and the origin of the Nuremberg medical code. New York: Peter Lang Publishing; 2004. W20.55 H9 F893n 2004

7.      Goldhagen, DJ. The devil that never dies: the rise and threat of global anti-Semitism. New York: Little, Brown, 2013.

8.      Goldhagen, DJ. Hitler’s willing executioners: ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Knopf, 1996.

9.      Grabowski, JF. Josef Mengele. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books; 2004. WZ100 M544g 2004 

10.  Hasten, M. Mark my words. United States of America: Brotchen Books; 2003. WZ80.5 J3 H356m 2003

11.  International Auschwitz Committee. Nazi medicine: doctors, victims, and medicine in Auschwitz. New York: Howard Fertig; 1986.

12.  Killian, H. Hinter uns steht nur der Herrgott: Sub umbra Dei. Aufzeichnungen eines Chirurgen. München, Deutschland: Kindler; 1957. WZ70 GG4 K556 1957 

13.  Koren, Y, Negev, E. In our hearts we were giants: the remarkable story of the Lilliput Troupe - a dwarf family's survival of the Holocaust. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers; 2004. DS135 R73 K84i 2004

14.  Kuntz, D, Bachrach, S. Deadly medicine: creating the master race. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press; 2004.

15.  Lagnado, L. Children of the flames: Dr. Mengele and the untold story of the twins of Auschwitz. New York: Morrow; 1991. DD247 M46 L176c 1991

16.  Lifton, RJ. Nazi doctors: medical killing and the psychology of genocide. New York: Basic Books; 1986. WZ70 GG4 L767n 1986 

17.  Lifton, RJ. Home from the war: Vietnam veterans: neither victims nor executioners. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1973. DS557 A68 L626 1973

18.  Mendelsohn, J. Medical experiments on Jewish inmates of concentration camps. New York: Garland; 1982. D810 J4 M468 1982

19.  Müller-Hill, B. Murderous science: elimination by scientific selection of Jews, gypsies, and others, Germany 1933-1945. New York: Oxford University Press; 1988.

20.  Naday, D. Medicine and Nazism. Jerusalem: Hebrew University Magnes Press; 2010. WZ70 GG4 N133 2009

21.  Nicosia, FR, Huener, J. Medicine and medical ethics in Nazi Germany: origins, practices, legacies. New York: Berghahn Books; 2002. WZ70 GG4 M4896 2002 

22.  Nuremberg Military Tribunals. Trials of war criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council law no. 10. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office; 1951. D804 G425 T819 v.1 1946-49, D804 G425 T819 v.2 1946-49

23.  Nyiszli, M. Auschwitz: a doctor's eyewitness account. New York: Arcade Publishing; 2011. D805 P7 N994a 2011

24.  O'Neill S. First they killed the 'Crazies' and 'Cripples': the ableist persecution and murders of people with disabilities by Nazi Germany 1933-45, an anthropological perspective [PhD]. California Institute of Integral Studies; 2000

25.  Pasternak, A. Inhuman research: medical experiments in German concentration camps. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó; 2006. W20.55 H9 P291i 2006

26.  Pernkopf, E. Atlas of topographical and applied human anatomy. Monsen H, translator; Ferner H, editor. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders; 1963. QS17 P423 v.1 1963, QS17 P423 v.2 1964

27.  Posner, G, Ware, J. Mengele: the complete story. New York: Cooper Square Press; 1986. DD247 M46 P855m 1986

28.  Rubenfeld, S. Human subjects research after the Holocaust. New York: Springer; 2014.

29.  Rubenfeld, S. Medicine after the Holocaust: from the master race to the human genome and beyond. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2010. WZ70 GG4 M4897 2010

30.  Schmidt, U. Karl Brandt, the Nazi doctor: medicine and power in the Third Reich. New York: Bloomsbury Academic; 2007. WZ100 B821s 2007

31.  Sciolino, A. The Holocaust, the church, and the law of unintended consequences. [Bloomington, IN]: iUniverse, 2014.

32.  Shelley, L. Criminal experiments on human beings in Auschwitz and war research laboratories: twenty women prisoners' accounts. San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press; 1991.

33.   Spector, S, Rozett, R. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. New York: Facts on File; 2000.

34.   Stufflet SB. No "Stunde Null": German attitudes toward the mentally handicapped and their impact on the postwar trials of T4 perpetrators [PhD]. University of Florida; 2005.

35.   Tandler, J. Topographische Anatomie Dringlicher Operation. Berlin: Springer; 1923. QM531 T163 1923

36.   Thorton LP. Weeding the Garden: Euthanasia, National Socialism, and Germany 1939-1945 [Ph.D]. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 1991.

37.   Weindling, PJ. Nazi medicine and the Nuremberg Trials: from medical war crimes to informed consent. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2004. W20.55 H9 W423n 2004

38.   Weyers, W. Death of medicine in Nazi Germany: dermatology and dermatopathology under the swastika. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1998. WR11 GG4 W547d 1998



1.      Bachrach S. In the name of public health: Nazi racial hygiene. New England Journal of Medicine. 2004;351(5)

2.      Barondess JA. Medicine against society: lessons from the Third Reich. JAMA. 1996 Nov 27;276(20):1657-61.

3.      Benedict S. Nurses in the Nazi "euthanasia" program: a critical feminist analysis. Advances in Nursing Science. 2009;32(1):63-74.

4.      Benedict S. Duty and 'euthanasia': the nurses of the Meseritz-Obrawalde. Nursing Ethics. 2007;14(6):781-94.

5.      Benedict S. Nurses and the sterilization experiments of Auschwitz: a postmodernist perspective. Nursing Inquiry. 2006;13(4):277-88.

6.      BenGershom E. From Haeckel to Hackethal: lessons from Nazi medicine for students and practitioners of medicine. Holocaust Genocide Stud. 1990;5(1):73,73-97.

7.      Berger RL. Ethics in scientific communication: study of a problem case. Journal of Medical Ethics. 1994;20:207-11.

8.      Brown S. Hitler's bible: an analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany. Vesalius. 2009 Jun;15(1):26-31.

9.      Browning CR. Genocide and public health: German doctors and Polish Jews, 1939-41. Holocaust Genocide Stud. 1988;3(1):21-36.

10.  Brune M. On human self-domestication, psychiatry, and eugenics. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. 2007;2(21)

11.  Cohen E. The Nazification of German physicians, 1918-1937. Ann R Coll Physicians Surg Can. 1998 Oct;31(7):336-40.

12.  Cohen MM. Overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine. Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Mar;152A(3):687-707.

13.  Colaianni A. A long shadow: Nazi doctors, moral vulnerability and contemporary medical culture. J Med Ethics. 2012 Jul;38(7):435-8.

14.  Faraone SV, Gottesman II, Tsuang MT. Fifty years of the Nuremberg code: a time for retrospection and introspection. Am J Med Genet. 1997 Jul 25;74(4):345-7.

15.  Fischer BA. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 2012;200(12):1096-100.

16.  Foth T. Nurses, medical records and the killing of sick persons before, during and after the Nazi regime in Germany. Nurs Inq. 2013 Jun;20(2):93-100.

17.  Frewer A. Human rights from the Nuremberg doctors trial to the Geneva declaration: persons and institutions in medical ethics and history. Med Health Care Philos. 2010 Aug;13(3):259-68. D804.3 M958m 1988

18.  Geiderman JM. Ethics seminars: Physician complicity in the Holocaust: historical review and reflections on emergency medicine in the 21st century, part I. Acad Emerg Med. 2002 Mar;9(3):223-31.

19.  Geiderman JM. Ethics seminars: Physician complicity in the Holocaust: historical review and reflections on emergency medicine in the 21st century, part II. Acad Emerg Med. 2002 Mar;9(3):232-40.

20.  Haas F. German science and black racism- roots of the Nazi holocaust. The FASEB Journal. 2008;22(2):332-7.

21.  Hanauske-Abel HM. Not a slippery slope or sudden subversion: German medicine and National Socialism in 1933. BMJ. 1996 Dec 7;313(7070):1453-63.

22.  Hassenfeld IN. Doctor-patient relations in Nazi Germany and the fate of psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Quarterly. 2002;73(3):183-94.

23.  Hildebrandt S. The women on Stieve's list: victims of National Socialism whose bodies were used for anatomical research. Clin Anat. 2013 Jan;26(1):3-21.

24.  Hoskins SA. Nurses and National Socialism - a moral dilemma: one historical example of a route to euthanasia. Nursing Ethics. 2005;12(1):79-91.

25.  Hudson L. From small beginnings: the euthanasia of children with disabilities in Nazi Germany. J Paediatr Child Health. 2011 Aug;47(8):508-11.

26.  Jotkowitz A. The Holocaust and medical ethics: the voices of the victims. Journal of Medical Ethics. 2008;34:869-70.

27.  Karenberg A. Neurosciences and the Third Reich. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences. 2006;15(3):168,168-172.

28.  Kennicott P. The seduction of science to perfect and imperfect race. International Journal of Health Science. 2005;35(2):399-404.

29.  Kevorkian J. A brief history of experimentation on condemned and executed humans. Journal of the National Medical Association. 1985;77(3):215-26.

30.  Lang HJ. August Hirt and "extraordinary opportunities for cadaver delivery" to anatomical institutes in National Socialism: a murderous change in paradigm. Ann Anat. 2013 Oct;195(5):373-80.

31.  Lefor AT. Scientific misconduct and unethical human experimentation: historic parallels and moral implications. Nutrition. 2005 Jul-Aug;21(7-8):878-82.

32.  Lifton RJ. Medicalized killing in Auschwitz. Psychiatry. 1982 Nov;45(4):283-97.

33.  Lippman M. The Nazi doctors trial and the international prohibition on medical involvement in torture. Loyola Los Angel Int Comp Law J. 1993 Feb;15(2):395-441.

34.  Lopez-Muoz F. The pharmaceutical industry and the German National Socialist regime: I.G. Farben and pharmacological research. Journal of Clincial Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2009;34(1):67-77.

35.  Mellanby, K. Medical experiments on human beings in concentration camps in Nazi Germany. British Medical Journal. 1947:148.

36.  Ost S. Doctors and nurses of death: a case study of eugenically motivated killing under the Nazi 'euthanasia' programme. Liverp Law Rev. 2006 Apr;27(1):5-30.

37.  Panush RS. Upon finding a Nazi anatomy atlas: the lessons of Nazi medicine. Pharos Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Med Soc. 1996 Fall;59(4):18-22.

38.  Post SG. The echo of Nuremberg: Nazi data and ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics. 1991;17:42,42-44.

39.  Pressel DM. Nuremberg and Tuskegee: lessons for contemporary American medicine. J Natl Med Assoc. 2003 Dec;95(12):1216-25.

40.  Proctor RN. Nazi science and Nazi medical ethics: some myths and misconceptions. Perspect Biol Med. 2000 Spring;43(3):335-46.

41.  Querido D. Pernkopf's atlas--a product of Nazi atrocities perpetrated in Austria during World War II. S Afr Med J. 1998 Aug;88(8):956-8.

42.  Reis SP. The art of medicine learning from the past: medicine and the Holocaust. Lancet. 2009;374(9684):110,110-111.

43.  Schaefer N. The legacy of Nazi medicine. New Atlantis. 2004 Spring;5:54-60.

44.  Schneider F. Psychiatry under National Socialism: remembrance and responsibility. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011 Nov;261 Suppl 2:S111-8.

45.  Seeman MV. Psychiatry in the Nazi era. Can J Psychiatry. 2005 Mar;50(4):218-25.

46.  Seidelman WE. Medicine and murder in the Third Reich. Dimensions (N Y N Y). 1999;13(1):9-14.

47.  Seidelman WE. Mengele medicus: medicine's Nazi heritage. Milbank Q. 1988;66(2):221-39.

48.  Torrey EF, Yolken RH. Psychiatric genocide: Nazi attempts to eradicate schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2010 Jan;36(1):26-32.

49.  Vermaat JA. 'Euthanasia' in the Third Reich: lessons for today? Ethics Med. 2002 Spring;18(1):21-32.

50.  Weigmann K. In the name of science. The role of biologists in Nazi atrocities: lessons for today's scientists. EMBO Rep. 2001 Oct;2(10):871-5.

51.  Weitzman M. The ethics of using Nazi medical data: a Jewish perspective. Second Opinion. 1990;14(1):26-38.

52.  Wikler D, Barondess J. Bioethics and anti-bioethics in light of Nazi medicine: what must we remember? Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 1993 Mar;3(1):39-55.


Web Resources

·         Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. DNA chronicle:

·         Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory/Dolan DNA Learning Center. Image archive on the American eugenics movement:

·         Fernandes A. What Medical Students can Learn from the Holocaust:   

·         United States Holocaust Museum. Deadly medicine: creating the master race.



·         Angelone, G. (Producer and Director). René and I. [DVD]. Waltham, MA: National Center for Jewish Film; 2005. DVD WZ80.5 J3 R399 2005 


Compiled by HSL Staff members: Marie Ascher, Judy Gitlin, Jacob Nunnally, and Margaret Steadman, July 31, 2014