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AI Tools Guide

General Guidance for Citing AI


You should consider including an acknowledgment of your use of AI tools.  This could be in a formal acknowledgment section or a methods or introduction section, where appropriate. It is important to acknowledge how the AI tool was used. For example, was it used to assist with idea generation, data synthesis, or screening results? Be sure to explain specifically how the tool played a role in your research process.

Note: for works you intend to submit for publication, be sure to check that the journal or publisher you plan to submit to allows the use of AI. Those that allow AI will have specific requirements for how it should be acknowledged in the published work.


Unlike citing from a published article or book, the text generated from a chatbot interaction is not something retrievable by your readers. In cases where you would like to cite text generated by a chatbot, you should include an in-text citation, which credits the algorithm developer, and include the prompt used to generate the text. It may be more appropriate to include the complete interaction with the chatbot as an appendix for extensive chat interactions.

The sections below demonstrate the correct format for AI tools in APA 7th and AMA 11th.

APA 7th Edition

When citing AI in your text, use the name of the software developer and year.  This can either follow the parenthetical format: (OpenAI, 2023) or narrative format Google (2023).


The following is an example of how to cite an interaction with a chatbot:

When prompted to give a technical description of the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies in treating migraines in the style of TS Elliot, Bard replied,

These monoclonals’ efficacy in migraine

Is mediated by a complex process

That blocks the action of CGRP,

A protein that’s involved in pain.


The antibodies bind to CGRP

And prevent it from binding to its receptors,

Which reduces the inflammation and pain

That are characteristic of migraine (Google, 2023).


The reference list entries for AI follow the template for software that is outlined in Section 10.10 of the APA guide. 


Google. (2023) Bard (Mar 21 version) [Large language model].

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].


Reference: McAdoo, T. (2023, April 7). How to cite ChatGPT. APA Style.

AMA 11th Edition

Section 14.5.2 of the AMA Manual of Style, 11th edition, covers the citation of Software and includes guidance on referencing AI. Nonproprietary descriptive terms should be used for AI tools in articles (e.g., chatbot instead of ChatGPT). After the first mention of an AI tool, you should include the brand name, version number, manufacturer, and date used in parentheses.

In your reference list, AI tools follow the same format as software:

1. ChatGPT. Version Mar 14. OpenAI; 2023. Accessed March 28, 2023.


Iverson, C. (2020). 'Nomenclature', AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 11th ed. AMA Manual of Style

James Cook University Australia (2023). 'Software and AI', AMA 11th Referencing Guide