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GSBMS Thesis Prep

Guideline for students writing a Literature Review, M.S. Thesis or Dissertation PhD.

Table Components

Follow the AMA style for Formatting Tables:

For more information about formatting Tables. Go to section 4.1.4 in the AMA Manual.

  • Tables are usually are set off from the text by horizontal rules, or thicker bars (as shown below) boxes, or white space.
  • The word “Table” and the table number are part of the title. See example for Table 4
    • Each table should have a brief, specific, descriptive title that conveys the topic of the table succinctly but should not provide detailed background information or summarize or interpret the results.
  • Tables are numbered consecutively as referred to in the text.
  • Position them as close to the referring text as possible.
  • Horizontal lines, not vertical.
  • Footnotes are used in two circumstances:
    • ​Descriptive footnotes contain information about the entire table, portions of the table (eg, a column), or a discrete table entry. The order of the footnotes is determined by the placement in the table of the item to which the footnote refers. They are then indicated with superscript lowercase letters in alphabetical order (a-z) listed at the bottom each on its own line such as indicated below. In Table 4, Footnote a andrefer to the Information in the entire column. 
    • To cite references for information used in the table, follow the GSBMS Thesis Style. See Citing Tables below in this guide.



Table 4. Ten-Year Prevalence of Fractures, Falls, or Musculoskeletal Injuries Among Beneficiaries With Disorders of Binocular Vision

Citing Tables


For citing references, follow the GSBMS Thesis Style for in-text citations.

References for information in a table should be cited according to how it is cited in the text.

Keep in mind, it is acceptable for a reference to be cited only in a table and not in the text.  All references in an article should appear in the reference list regardless if it only appears in the table.

Use AMA Footnotes for citing references that contain lower case Arabic letters. See example below with Footnote a.

For GSBMS Thesis Style, change to: in-text citation style next to Footnote a. 

Example: Data adapted from American Sports Data Inc., 2011.


GSBMS Thesis Style:

When using footnotes as in the example above (a) to reference your sources, do not use superscript numbers. Follow the GSBMS in-text style and replace the superscript number with terminology such as:

  • Adapted from American Sports Data Inc., 2011
    • You are encouraged to create your own tables. Adapted rather than copied.
      • if you changed or modified the table as opposed to an exact copy (not suggested) from the original source.
  • Reproduced with permission from American Sports Data Inc., 2011. or  just  "From ..." (If you did not receive permission)
    • If you copied exactly, which is discouraged.
  • "Data were derived from. . ." or  "Derived from ..." or  "Data adapted from ..."
    • If you did a calculation, computation, or extrapolation.
  • "Data from..."
    • In this case you created a table and used only a minimal amount of data from a source.

Figure Components


Follow the AMA style for formatting your figures.

For more detailed information about figure components, see section 4.2.6 in the AMA Manual.


The figure title follows the designation “Figure” numbered consecutively (ie, Figure 1, Figure 2). Articles that contain a single figure (as in the one below) use the designator “Figure” (not “Figure 1”). 


The figure legend (caption) is written in sentence format and printed below or next to the figure. It will also contain citations if you used or reproduced any data from another source.


Figure Citation


Citing your sources. It is preferable and advisable to use your own original figures rather than copying and pasting those already published.


However, if you are writing your Master's Research Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation and use of a previously published illustration, photograph, or other figure is necessary, written permission to reproduce it should be obtained from the copyright holder (usually the publisher). The original source should be cited in the legend (see example below) following the GSBMS Thesis Style for in-text citations. 

These examples of legends that serves as citations, should be placed below the descriptive legend.


Reprinted with permission from the American Academy of Pediatrics, 2011.

Terminology: As in proper citation for tables, use terminology that applies to whether you modified or performed a calculation:

Adapted from Smith, 2005.

Data were derived from Crooke and McKinley, 2020.

Insert citation here below descriptive legend. Follow GSBMS Thesis Style for author, date in-text citation style.