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GSBMS Thesis Prep

Guideline for students writing a Literature Review, M.S. Thesis or Dissertation PhD.

Table Components

For more information about formatting Tables. Go to section 4.1.4 in the AMA Manual.

  • Tables are usually are set off from the text by horizontal rules, or thicker bars (as shown below) boxes, or white space.
  • The word “Table” and the table number are part of the title. See example for Table 4
    • Each table should have a brief, specific, descriptive title that conveys the topic of the table succinctly but should not provide detailed background information or summarize or interpret the results.
  • Tables are numbered consecutively as referred to in the text.
  • Position them as close to the referring text as possible.
  • Horizontal lines, not vertical.
  • Footnotes are used in two circumstances:
    • ​Descriptive footnotes contain information about the entire table, portions of the table (eg, a column), or a discrete table entry. The order of the footnotes is determined by the placement in the table of the item to which the footnote refers. They are then indicated with superscript lowercase letters in alphabetical order (a-z) listed at the bottom each on its own line such as indicated below. In Table 4, Footnote a andrefer to the Information in the entire column. 
    • To cite references for information used in the table. See Citing Tables below in this guide.

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 4. Ten-Year Prevalence of Fractures, Falls, or Musculoskeletal Injuries Among Beneficiaries With Disorders of Binocular Vision

Citing Tables

 

For citing references, follow the GSBMS Thesis Style for in-text citations.

References for information in a table should be cited according to how it is cited in the text.

Keep in mind, it is acceptable for a reference to be cited only in a table and not in the text.  All references in an article should appear in the reference list regardless if it only appears in the table.

Use Footnotes for citing references.

For AMA, use footnotes that contain lower case Arabic letters for citing your references along with Arabic superscript numerals outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. See example below with Footnote a

For GSBMS Thesis Style, change to: in-text citation style next to Footnote a

Example: Data adapted from American Sports Data Inc., 2011.

 

GSBMS Thesis Style:

When using footnotes as in the example above (a) to reference your sources, use terminology such as:

  • Adapted from American Sports Data Inc., 2011
    • You are encouraged to create your own tables. Adapted rather than copied.
      • if you changed or modified the table as opposed to an exact copy (not suggested or preferred) from the original source.
  • Reproduced with permission from American Sports Data Inc., 2011. or  just  "From ..." (If you did not receive permission)
    • If you copied exactly, which is discouraged.
  • "Data were derived from. . ." or  "Derived from ..." or  "Data adapted from ..."
    • If you did a calculation. In this case you created a table and used only a minimal amount of data from a source.

Figure Components

 

For more detailed information about figure components, see section 4.2.6 in the AMA Manual.

Title

The figure title follows the designation “Figure” numbered consecutively (ie, Figure 1, Figure 2). Articles that contain a single figure (as in the one below) use the designator “Figure” (not “Figure 1”). 

Legends

The figure legend (caption) is written in sentence format and printed below or next to the figure. It will also contain citations if you did reproduce any data from another source.

 

Figure Citation

 

Citing your sources. It is preferable to use original figures rather than those already published.

 

However when use of a previously published illustration, photograph, or other figure is necessary, written permission to reproduce it must be obtained from the copyright holder (usually the publisher). The original source should be cited in the legend (see example below) following the GSBMS Thesis Style for in-text citations. 

These examples of legends that serves as citations, should be placed below the descriptive legend.

Example:

Reprinted with permission from the American Academy of Pediatrics, 2011.

Terminology: As in proper citation for tables, use terminology that applies to whether you modified or performed a calculation:

Adapted from Smith, 2005.

Data were derived from Crooke and McKinley, 2020.

Insert citation here below descriptive legend. Follow GSBMS Thesis Style for author, date in-text citation style.