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AMA (11/e) Style Guide

A guide to help users create citations using AMA (American Medical Association) style

General Print Book Format

  • Complete information on what to include in a book citation can be found in section 3.12.2 of the AMA Manual of Style
  • Below is the general format of a reference citation for a chapter in a book:

1. Yashiro M, Yanagawa H. Database construction for information on patients with Kawasaki disease. In: Yanagawa H, Nakamura Y, Yashiro M, Kawasaki T, eds. Epidemiology of Kawasaki Disease: A 30-Year Achievement. Tokyo, Japan: Shindan-to-Chiryosha; 2004:57-77.

  • Below is the general format for a reference citation for an entire book:

2. Modlin J, Jenkins P. Decision Analysis in Planning for a Polio Outbreak in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Pediatric Academic Societies; 2004.

More Specific Print Book Examples

EXAMPLES: 

  1. Cooper IS. The Vital Probe: My Life as an Experimental Brain Surgeon. New York: Norton; 1981.
  2. Quinn S. Marie Curie: A Life. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1995.
  3. Epstein R. Attending: Medicine, Mindfulness, and Humanity. New York: Scribner; 2017.

 

Note: If you have six or less authors, you must list all of the authors in the reference.  

EXAMPLES for six authors or less:

  1. Tobias JS, Williams CJ. Cancer: A Colour Atlas. New York, NY: Gower Medical Publishing; 1991.
  2. Logan BM, Reynolds PA, Hutchings RT. McMinn's Color Atlas of Head and Neck Anatomy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Mosby; 2004.
  3. Wolff K, Johnson RA, Fitzpatrick TB. Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Medical; 2009.

If you have more than six authors, list the first three followed by ', et al.'

EXAMPLES for more than six authors:

  1. Doe JF, Roe JP III, Coe RT Jr, et al.

EXAMPLES: 

  1. DeVita, Jr. VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott; 1993.
  2. Armitage JO, Antman KH, eds. High-dose Cancer Therapy: Pharmacology, Hematopoietins, Stem Cells. 3rd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1995.
  3. Nasca PC, Pastides H, eds. Fundamentals of Cancer Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2008.

When citing a chapter of a book, capitalize as you would for a journal article title (capitalize only the first word of the title). Do not use quotation marks. Inclusive page numbers of the chapter should be given (see 3.12.4)  

EXAMPLES: 

  1. Kaplein MJ. History and physical examination. In: McMahon MC, Stryjewski GR, eds. Pediatrics A Competency-Based Companion. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier; 2011:46-51.
  2. Nagappan S, Roberts KB. Decision making: use of evidence-based medicine. In: Rudolph CD, Rudolph AM, Lister G, First LR, Gershom AA, eds. Rudolph's Pediatrics. 22nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2011:3-4.
  3. Stettler N, Bhatia J, Parish A, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme III JW, Schor NF, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders; 2011:160-169.

References to monographs should be styled the same as references to books.

EXAMPLES:

  1. Klute DS, Ayers LW, Green MT, Howe WH, Jones SL, Shafer JA, et al. Status Assessment and Conservation Plan for the Western Burrowing Owl in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 2003. Biological Technical Publication BTP-R6001-2003.
  2. Beach MC, Cooper LA, Robinson KA, Price EG, Gary TL, Jenckes MW, et al. Strategies for Improving Minority Healthcare Quality: A Summary. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment 90.
  3. Engber E, Teraoka J, van Mantgem PJ. Forest Restoration at Redwood National Park: Exploring Prescribed Fire Alternatives to Second-Growth Management: A Case Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service; 2017. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-258.

General Journal Format

  • Do not omit digits from inclusive page numbers. The year, followed by a semicolon; the volume number and the issue number (in parentheses), followed by a colon; the initial page number, a hyphen, and the final page number, followed by a period, are set without spaces. EXAMPLES:
    • 1. Rainier S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al. Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 gene mutations cause paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(7):1025-1029.

    • 2. Hyduk A, Croft JB, Ayala C, Zheng K, Zheng Z-J, Mensah GA. Pulmonary hypertension surveillance—United States, 1980–2002. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2005;54(5):1-28.

  • Complete information on what to include in a journal citation can be found in section 3.11.1 of the AMA Manual of Style. 
  • Use PubMed abbreviations for journal titles. See Journals referenced in the NCBI Databases.
  • If no PubMed journal abbreviation exists, use standard abbreviations in the AMA Manual of StyleFor further information on journal abbreviations, see section 13.10 of the AMA Manual.

More Specific Journal Examples

EXAMPLE:

  1. Weinzirl J. The cause of explosion in chocolate candies. J Bacteriol. 1922;7(6):599-604.
  2. Lippi D. Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons? Nutrition. 2009;25(11-12):1100-3.
  3. Verna R. The history and science of chocolate. Malays J Pathol. 2013;35(2):111-121.

If you have 6 or less authors, you must list all of the authors in the reference.  

EXAMPLE:

  1. McShea A, Ramiro-Puig E, Munro SB, Casadesus G, Castell M, Smith MA. Clinical benefit and preservation of flavanols in dark chocolate manufacturing. Nutr Rev. 2008;66(11):630-41.

If you have more than 6 authors, list the first three followed by ', et al.'

EXAMPLE:

  1. Pucciarelli DL, Grivetti LE. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(10):1215-27.
  2. Stahl L, Miller KB, Apgar J, et al. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder. J Food Sci. 2009;74(6):C456-61.

 

In references to journals that have no volume or issue numbers, use the issue date, as shown in example 1 below. If there is an issue number but no volume number, use the style shown in example 2 below.

  • 1. Flyvholm MA, Susitaival P, Meding B, et al. Nordic occupational skin questionnaire—NOSQ-2002: Nordic questionnaire for surveying work-related skin diseases on hands and forearms and relevant exposure. TemaNord. April 2002:518.

  • 2. Keppel K, Pamuk E, Lynch J, et al. Methodologic issues in measuring health disparities. Vital Health Stat 2. 2005;(141):1-16.