References are numbered in consecutive order by means of superscript Arabic numerals in the text, tables, or figures.
It is acceptable for a reference to be cited only in a figure, table, or box and not in the text if it is in sequence with references cited in the text.
For example, if Table 2 contains reference 13, which does not appear in the text, this is acceptable as long as the last reference cited (for the first time) before the first text citation of Table 2 is reference 12.
Use superscript arabic numerals to cite material, e.g., 1 The first reference used in a written document is listed as 1 in the reference list.
Where to place the superscript?
If a reference is used multiple times in one paper, use the same number throughout.
At the end of the document, include a reference list with full citations to each item. Name it References. Order citations as they appear in your paper.
You may use author names in your text, as long as these mentions are accompanied by numbered citations. Use last names only. For items with one or two authors, include both names. For items with 3 or more authors, include the first author's surname and then 'et al' or 'and colleagues'.
Two author Example:
More than two authors:
The format for authors in in-text citations is different than what is required of listed references. In the list of references all authors should be given unless there are more than 6, in which case the names of the first 3 authors are used followed by “et al.
Use In-Text citations when paraphrasing or using a direct quote.
A direct quote is taken word-for-word from the original text. Indicate it is a quote by using double quotation marks around the original phrase. The superscript appears after the quotation mark. See examples below for both paraphrasing and using a direct quote:
Finding treatments for breast cancer is a major goal for scientists.1,2 "Some classes of drugs show more promise than others. Gradishar evaluated taxanes as a class."3 Other scientists have investigated individual drugs within this class, including Andre and Zielinski 2 and Joensuu and Gligorov. 4 Mita et al's investigation of cabazitaxel 5 seems to indicate a new role for this class of drugs.
1. Cancer Research Funding. National Cancer Institute. Publication date unavailable. Updated June 6, 2011. Accessed November 3, 2012. http://www.cancer.gov.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/cancertopics/factsheet/NCI/research-funding.
2. Andre F, Zielinski CC. Optimal strategies for the treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast cancer with currently approved agents. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(Suppl 2):vi46-vi51.
3. Gradishar WJ. Taxanes for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer (Auckl.). 2012;6:159-171.
4. Joensuu H, Gligorov J. Adjuvant treatments for triple-negative breast cancers. Ann Oncol. 2012;Suppl 6:vi40-45.
5. Mita AC, Figlin R, Mita MM. Cabazitaxel: more than a new taxane for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer? Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18(24):OF1-OF6.
When citing different page numbers from a single reference source at different places in the text, the page numbers are included in the superscript citation and the source appears only once in the list of references.
These patients showed no sign of protective sphincteric adduction.3(p21),9
Westman5(pp3,5),9 reported 8 cases in which vomiting occurred.